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automobile | Definition, History, Industry, Design

Cars Details: Passenger cars have emerged as the primary means of family transportation, with an estimated 1.4 billion in operation worldwide. About one-quarter of these are in the United States, where more than three trillion miles (almost five trillion kilometres) are traveled each year.In recent years, Americans have been offered hundreds of different models, about half of them from foreign manufacturers.

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Car | railroad vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: Other articles where Car is discussed: railroad: Cars: After the first crude beginnings, railroad-car design took divergent courses in North America and Europe, because of differing economic conditions and technological developments. Early cars on both continents were largely of two-axle design, but passenger-car builders soon began constructing cars with three and then…

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Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) - Britannica

Cars Details: Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): This technique involves the phenomenon of wave mixing, takes advantage of the high intensity of stimulated Raman scattering, and has the applicability of conventional Raman spectroscopy. In the CARS method two strong collinear laser beams at frequencies ν1 and ν2 (ν1 > ν2) irradiate a sample.

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Automobile - History of the automobile | Britannica

Cars Details: Automobile - Automobile - History of the automobile: Unlike many other major inventions, the original idea of the automobile cannot be attributed to a single individual. The idea certainly occurred long before it was first recorded in the Iliad, in which Homer (in Alexander Pope’s translation) states that Vulcan in a single day made 20 tricycles, which Leonardo da Vinci considered the idea

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Electric automobile | vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: Electric automobile, battery-powered motor vehicle, originating in the late 1880s and used for private passenger, truck, and bus transportation. Through the early period of the automotive industry until about 1920, electric automobiles were competitive with petroleum-fueled cars particularly as

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Automobile - Chassis | Britannica

Cars Details: Automobile - Automobile - Chassis: In most passenger cars through the middle of the 20th century, a pressed-steel frame—the vehicle’s chassis—formed a skeleton on which the engine, wheels, axle assemblies, transmission, steering mechanism, brakes, and suspension members were mounted. The body was flexibly bolted to the chassis during a manufacturing process typically referred to as body

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streetcar | Facts, History, & Development | Britannica

Cars Details: Streetcar, vehicle that runs on track laid in the streets, usually operated in single units and driven by electric motor. Early streetcars were either horse-drawn or relied on storage batteries that were expensive and inefficient. Despite the advent of the automobile, streetcars remain in use in many cities.

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Automobile - Alternative-fuel vehicles | Britannica

Cars Details: Automobile - Automobile - Alternative-fuel vehicles: After World War II the diesel engine, particularly for light trucks and taxis, became popular in Europe because of its superior fuel economy and various tax incentives. During the 1970s General Motors converted some gasoline passenger-car engines to the more economical compression-ignition diesel operation, and Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, and

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Truck | vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: These vehicles generally have more in common with passenger cars than with larger trucks. More than half of the world production of trucks consists of light pickup trucks, utility vehicles, and vans. Medium trucks have GVW ratings of 10,000 to 26,000 pounds (4.5 to 11.8 metric tons) and are generally straight designs.

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Tractor | vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: Tractor, high-power, low-speed traction vehicle and power unit mechanically similar to an automobile or truck but designed for use off the road. The two main types are wheeled, which is the earliest form, and continuous track. Tractors are used in agriculture, construction, road building, etc., in

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Cars & Other Vehicles Browse - Page 1 | Britannica

Cars Details: Cars & Other Vehicles, 200-BEL. Automobile, byname auto, also called motorcar or car, a usually four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. Back To Cars & Other Vehicles Page.

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Automobile racing | Britannica

Cars Details: Automobile racing, professional and amateur automobile sport practiced throughout the world in a variety of forms on roads, tracks, or closed circuits. It includes Grand Prix racing, speedway racing, stock-car racing, sports-car racing, drag racing, midget-car racing, and karting, as well as hill

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Ford Motor Company | History & Facts | Britannica

Cars Details: Ford Motor Company, American automotive corporation cofounded in 1903 by Henry Ford. One of the world’s largest automakers, it manufactures passenger cars, trucks, and tractors as well as automotive parts and accessories. Learn more about Ford’s history and vehicles.

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car - Kids | Britannica Kids | Homework Help

Cars Details: A car is a vehicle that has wheels, carries a small number of passengers, and is moved by an engine or a motor. Cars are also called automobiles or motor vehicles. Trucks and buses are motor vehicles as well. However, trucks and buses are larger than cars, and they carry heavier loads.

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Sleeping car | railroad vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: Sleeping car, also called sleeper, railroad coach designed for overnight passenger travel. The first sleeping cars were put in service on American railroads as early as the 1830s, but these were makeshift; the first car designed for comfortable nighttime travel was the Pullman sleeper, which was commercially introduced by George M. Pullman and Ben Field in 1865.

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Automobile - Ford and the automotive revolution | Britannica

Cars Details: Automobile - Automobile - Ford and the automotive revolution: Henry Ford produced eight versions of cars before the Model T of 1908, with which his name became synonymous; these were the models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. They were not remarkable automobiles, but public response to the less expensive ones (the firm made some fairly costly cars at first) indicated the soundness of Ford’s idea

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Cars & Other Vehicles Browse - Page 3 | Britannica

Cars Details: Cars & Other Vehicles, CHA-DOU Automobile, byname auto, also called motorcar or car, a usually four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel.

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Chrysler | American company | Britannica

Cars Details: The company pioneered the “muscle car,” beginning with the 1955 C-300, featuring a 300-horsepower hemi V-8 engine, and following with the outstanding 1960 Chrysler 300 F. Popular high-performance cars of the 1960s included the Chrysler 300 coupes, the Chrysler Imperial LeBaron, the Dodge Charger, and the Dodge Coronet.

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Chariot | vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: Chariot, open, two- or four-wheeled vehicle of antiquity, probably first used in royal funeral processions and later employed in warfare, racing, and hunting.The chariot apparently originated in Mesopotamia in about 3000 bc; monuments from Ur and Tutub depict battle parades that include heavy vehicles with solid wheels, their bodywork framed with wood and covered with skins.

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Henry Ford | Biography, Education, Inventions, & Facts

Cars Details: Henry Ford’s assembly-line methods revolutionized factory production. Using his techniques, chassis assembly was reduced from 12.5 man-hours to 93 man-minutes by 1914. Assembly time reduction contributed to the drastic cut in price of the private automobile. This made cars affordable to the growing American middle class.

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Compact car | automobile | Britannica

Cars Details: Other articles where Compact car is discussed: automobile: American compact cars: While the size of the standard American motorcar increased steadily from the late 1940s to the early 1960s, a small segment of the population was demonstrating a preference for smaller cars and for comparatively uncluttered styling. The success of the Volkswagen and other…

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Automobile - Early electric automobiles | Britannica

Cars Details: Automobile - Automobile - Early electric automobiles: At the beginning of the 20th century, 40 percent of American automobiles were powered by steam, 38 percent by electricity, and 22 percent by gasoline. In the face of the gasoline car’s unreliability, noise, and vibration and the steamer’s complications and thirst, the electric offered attractive selling points: notably, instant self

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Mars | Facts, Surface, Temperature, & Atmosphere | Britannica

Cars Details: Mars, fourth planet in the solar system in order of distance from the Sun and seventh in size and mass. It is a periodically conspicuous reddish object in the night sky. There are intriguing clues that billions of years ago Mars was even more Earth-like than today.

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Maserati | History, Products, & Facts | Britannica

Cars Details: Maserati, in full Maserati SpA, former name Officine Alfieri Maserati SA, Italian automobile manufacturer known for racing, sports, and GT (Grand Touring) cars.It is a subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV and is based in Modena, Italy.. Officine Alfieri Maserati SA was founded in Bologna, Italy, in December 1914 by the brothers Alfieri, Ettore, and Ernesto Maserati.

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automobile - Students | Britannica Kids | Homework Help

Cars Details: Electric cars have a battery that can be recharged when plugged into an outlet made for that specific purpose. Recharging usually takes about six hours. Owners of electric cars manufactured in the early 21st century were able to drive about 70 to 300 miles (110 to 480 kilometers) on one charge.

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Cars & Other Vehicles Browse - Page 2 | Britannica

Cars Details: Cars & Other Vehicles, BEL-CHA. Automobile, byname auto, also called motorcar or car, a usually four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. Back To Cars & Other Vehicles Page.

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Sir Alec Issigonis | British automobile designer | Britannica

Cars Details: Sir Alec Issigonis, British automobile designer who created the best-selling, economical Mini and the perennially popular Morris Minor. The son of a Greek merchant, Issigonis immigrated to London in 1922 during the war between Greece and Turkey. After studying engineering, he joined Morris Motors

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General Motors | History, Deals, & Facts | Britannica

Cars Details: General Motors, American corporation that was the world’s largest motor-vehicle manufacturer for much of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Its major products include automobiles and trucks, automotive components, and engines. General Motor’s headquarters are in Detroit. Learn more about the company’s history.

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Jaguar | mammal | Britannica

Cars Details: Jaguar, (Panthera onca), largest New World member of the cat family (Felidae), once found from the U.S.-Mexican border southward to Patagonia, Argentina. Its preferred habitats are usually swamps and wooded regions, but jaguars also live in scrublands and deserts. The jaguar is virtually extinct in

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Volkswagen Group | Overview, History, & Facts | Britannica

Cars Details: The first of those new cars was the short-lived K70 in 1970, followed by the Passat in 1973. Most significant, however, was the Golf, initially called the Rabbit in the United States, which was introduced in 1974. The Golf was an instant sales success, effectively replacing the Beetle in the company’s lineup and ultimately becoming Volkswagen

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Cars & Other Vehicles Browse - Page 5 | Britannica

Cars Details: Cars & Other Vehicles, FéD-IND Automobile, byname auto, also called motorcar or car, a usually four-wheeled vehicle designed primarily for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel.

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Coach | railroad vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: Coach, railroad passenger car. In early railroad operation, passenger and freight cars were often intermixed, but that practice very soon gave way to running separate freight and passenger trains. The flexible gangway between coaches, introduced about 1880, made the entire train accessible to

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railroad | History, Invention, & Facts | Britannica

Cars Details: Early cars on both continents were largely of two-axle design, but passenger-car builders soon began constructing cars with three and then four axles, the latter arranged in two four-wheel swivel trucks, or bogies. The trucks resulted in smoother riding qualities and also spread the weight of heavy vehicles over more axles.

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Stagecoach | vehicle | Britannica

Cars Details: Stagecoach, any public coach regularly travelling a fixed route between two or more stations (stages). Used in London at least by 1640, and about 20 years later in Paris, stagecoaches reached their greatest importance in England and the United States in the 19th century, where the new macadam roads

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Edsel | automobile | Britannica

Cars Details: Edsel, an automobile (1958–60) intended to honour Henry Ford’s son, Edsel (1893–1943), who had been the much loved and appreciated president of the Ford Motor Company from 1919 till his death at age 49. He shared his name with thousands of other American boys and men—but after the new car turned

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Karl Benz | German engineer | Britannica

Cars Details: Karl Benz, German mechanical engineer who designed and in 1885 built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. Although the original Benz car (a three-wheeled vehicle, the Motorwagen, now preserved in Munich) first ran early in 1885, its design was not

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gasoline | Definition, Uses, & Facts | Britannica

Cars Details: Gasoline, mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and used as fuel for internal-combustion engines. It is also used as a solvent for oils and fats. Originally a by-product of the petroleum industry, gasoline later became the preferred automobile fuel.

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Automotive industry - Europe after World War II | Britannica

Cars Details: Automotive industry - Automotive industry - Europe after World War II: In Europe motor vehicles were recognized as an export item that could help restore war-shattered economies. Britain, for example, earmarked more than half of its automotive output for export and restricted domestic purchases for several years after the war. In addition, the horsepower tax was abandoned to enable British

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Automobile - Other European developments | Britannica

Cars Details: Automobile - Automobile - Other European developments: In France the giants were De Dion-Bouton, Peugeot SA, and Renault (the last two are still in existence). The Italians were later in the field: the Stefanini-Martina of 1896 is thought of as the foundation of the industry in Italy, and Isotta-Fraschini was founded about 1898. Giovanni Agnelli founded Fiat SpA in 1899, saw it grow into one

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Carp | fish species | Britannica

Cars Details: Carp, (usually Cyprinus carpio), hardy greenish brown fish of the family Cyprinidae. It is native to Asia but has been introduced into Europe and North America and elsewhere. A large-scaled fish with two barbels on each side of its upper jaw, the carp lives alone or in small schools in quiet,

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Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot | Facts, Invention, & Steam Car

Cars Details: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (born September 25, 1725, Void, France—died October 2, 1804, Paris), French military engineer who designed and built the world’s first true automobile—a huge, heavy, steam-powered tricycle.. After serving in the Austrian army in the Seven Years’ War, Cugnot returned to Paris in 1763 to devote his time to writing military treatises and tinkering with a number of

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Automotive industry - Ford and the assembly line | Britannica

Cars Details: Automotive industry - Automotive industry - Ford and the assembly line: The mass-produced automobile is generally and correctly attributed to Henry Ford, but he was not alone in seeing the possibilities in a mass market. Ransom E. Olds made the first major bid for the mass market with a famous curved-dash Oldsmobile buggy in 1901. Although the first Oldsmobile was a popular car, it was too

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emission control system | Description, Components, & Facts

Cars Details: Emission control system, in automobiles, means employed to limit the discharge of noxious gases from the internal-combustion engine and other components. There are three main sources of these gases: the engine exhaust, the crankcase, and the fuel tank and carburetor.

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Automotive ceramics | Britannica

Cars Details: Automotive ceramics, advanced ceramic materials that are made into components for automobiles. Examples include spark plug insulators, catalysts and catalyst supports for emission control devices, and sensors of various kinds. This article briefly describes two important automotive applications of

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Tesla, Inc. | History, Cars, Elon Musk, & Facts | Britannica

Cars Details: Tesla, Inc., American electric-automobile manufacturer. It was founded in 2003 by American entrepreneurs Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning and was named after Serbian American inventor Nikola Tesla. Elon Musk was a notable source of funding, and he became an executive at the company.

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traffic control | Definition, Methods, Devices, & Facts

Cars Details: Traffic control, supervision of the movement of people, goods, or vehicles to ensure efficiency and safety. Traffic control is a critical element in the safe and efficient operation of any transportation system. Operational procedures, rules and laws, and devices are some of the components of traffic control systems.

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George M. Pullman | Biography, Sleeper Car, & Pullman

Cars Details: By 1879 the company had boasted 464 cars for lease, gross annual earnings of $2.2 million, and net annual profits of almost $1 million. The company also manufactured and sold freight, passenger, refrigerator, street, and elevated cars. By the early 1890s it had a capitalization of more than $36 million.

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Freight car | Britannica

Cars Details: Freight car, railroad car designed to carry cargo. Early freight cars were made largely of wood. All-steel cars were introduced by about 1896 and within 30 years had almost completely replaced the wooden variety. Modern freight cars vary widely in shape and size, but virtually all of them evolved

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Sports car | Britannica

Cars Details: Other articles where Sports car is discussed: sports-car racing: …utterly functional equipment throughout, the sports car is usually a two-seater, sometimes a four-seater, characterized by its nimble abilities (if not speed and power) together with general suitability for high-speed touring on ordinary roads. Unlike a Grand Prix car, it is usually series-produced, seldom handmade.

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Midget-car racing | sports | Britannica

Cars Details: Midget-car racing, form of automobile racing, popular in the United States, in which miniature front-engine racing cars compete on 1 / 4 - or 1 / 2-mile dirt or paved tracks.Races are short, usually no more than 25 miles (40 km). Cars are of limited engine displacement, varying according to engine type—e.g., 114 cubic inches (1,870 cubic cm) for an overhead cam model, 76 cubic inches (1,245

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